I am visiting Lund University this week – and they have conclusively shown that the Resource Based View indeed is useful. Useful for what? As a door stop to their conference room. (I also sent the proof/picture to Jay, one of the originators of the theory.)
An article recently posted in Slate reviews research showing that a significant portion of the variation in IQ tests is attributable to motivation rather than ability. In one striking study researchers measured the children’s IQ and split them into High, Average, and Low groups. They reran the test offering the low group an M&M for every correct answer. As a result of this simple incentive, the low group’s score went from 79 to 97 – on par with the average group.
Ok, so incentives work. Perhaps not a big surprise on many levels.
On the other hand, there is a large OB/HRM literature invested in the conclusion that performance increases are associated with hiring employees with a higher IQ. The assumption there is that IQ measures ability as opposed to motivation.
This raises a critical question for strategy scholars. Is motivation an immutable attribute of human capital Read the rest of this entry »
Entertaining story of how the Applebee’s restaurant chain is trying to improve asset utilization by adding late-night karaoke and G-rated cut-loose partying to its traditional family-friendly but competitively besieged regular-hours dining experience. The impetus for this innovation appears to have been franchisees who went to their privately-held franchisor and asked for permission to experiment, which was enthusiastically granted.
My favorite part of this story is the superhero-like switch from regular-hours Applebee’s to creature of the night “bee’s” with the “Apple” part of the electric sign turned off, the lights switched from green to white, and the space cleared for dancing and DJs. My second-favorite part is the image of some naive soul coming in for a snack after 10:00PM–“oh, look honey, Applebee’s is still open; let’s get some pie”–and being confronted with hard-partying suburbanites belting out Foreigner tunes and dancing drunkenly. They’re going to have some delicate marketing and branding issues going forward, but it’s hard not to cheer for the entrepreneurial spirit displayed. After all, there are suburban archipelagoes of shopping centers where the only late-night place to go out will be “bee’s.”
Nicolai’s post at O&M made me aware of a new journal, Journal of Organization Design. I definitely think org design deserves to experience a renaissance/comeback, so I welcome a journal dedicated to the topic. (Though, I do think we have far too many journals in strategy/management – many of them are of suspect quality.)
I just now checked out the web site of the journal and they have some killer features, including short videos of the authors describing their papers:
- Here’s John Mathews talking about his paper, Design of Industrial and Supra-Firm Architectures.
- Timothy Carroll on Designing Organizations for Exploration and Exploitation.
- Raymond Miles on Designing the Firm to Fit the Future.
- And, here’s a longer video of Raymond Levitt discussing virtual design teams.
I like the video feature. Nice.
There is now a large stream of scholarly literature on “platforms” – loosely, third-party services designed to bring transacting parties together. Amazon.com and eBay are obvious examples. Broadly interpreted, so are services like online dating sites (see the work by Hanna Halaburda and colleagues).
With this in mind, I came across the following article: Ghostery: A Web tracking blocker that actually helps the ad industry | VentureBeat. Ghostery is an app offered by the advertising technology company Evidon. The app is used by privacy-conscious web surfers to block web tracking services. When a new tracker attempts to install a tracking cookie on a browser sporting Ghostery, the tracker is blocked and Ghostery sends the tracker information back to Evidon to be added to the company's database of web trackers, which improves the quality of the app.
The interesting twist in the business model is that Evidon then turns around and licenses its tracker database to the very ad networks its app is designed to block. In fact, says Evidon CEO Scott Meyer, “When a new web tracker comes on the scene, they often want to be listed in Ghostery. It’s proof that they’ve arrived and have influence.”
So, what do we call a service that helps side A avoid side B while helping side B pursue side A? Seems as if this phenomenon should have its own, suitably clever-yet-scholarly term.
I must admit that Andrew Hacker has been a byword for fatuousness to me for quite some time. His latest, however, is especially meretricious because it plays directly into what so many people desperately want to believe–that ignorance of algebra is AOK, so we shouldn’t bother trying to teach it. Apparently, algebra drives people to drop out of high school and fail competency tests, and these are Bad Things we can avoid by no longer teaching or testing it. (Next up–placing the thermometer in an ice bucket to cure your fever.)
Hacker’s most superficially compelling argument is that almost no workers use algebra in their day-to-day work, including a large number of people working in technical fields. (In a parody of Deweyism, he does want students to learn “citizen statistics” and “quantitative literacy” so they can understand how the Consumer Price Index is put together, although how you can understand a weighted average without understanding algebra is beyond me.) In case someone brings this job-relevance argument up at a party, here are some quick responses:
1. Jobs don’t require algebra largely because there aren’t very many people who are good at it. If no one could read, jobs wouldn’t require literacy, either, but there would be a significant productivity loss in many cases.
2. In the novel and movie The Caine Mutiny, the intellectual (though evil) character points out that in the Navy “everything was designed by geniuses to be run by idiots.” We could equally say that in the modern world everything is designed by people who know algebra to be used by people who don’t. The fewer people who know algebra, the more unnecessarily elitist that world will be.
a) It’s almost impossible to understand financial relationships without being able to manipulate algebraic formulae. You can plug and chug different numerical values into a calculator or spreadsheet formula, but you’ll have no idea about the sensitivity of results nor will you be able to check or modify the formulae.
b) Probability and statistics are doable, in a very limited and rote way, using prepared templates, for people who don’t know algebra. Anything beyond that, though, is impossible to figure out if you can’t manipulate the symbols properly. Would you trust someone to run a regression or interpret its results if they didn’t know in their bones what a coefficient represented, much less a log-linear relationship?
c) Some functional relationships can be grasped by drawing graphs without algebraic manipulation. If you need more than two dimensions or want to prove which way the curves have to move when you change assumptions, though, you’re going to have to be able to do some algebra.
d) Lots of non-STEM jobs involve spreadsheet formulas of various kinds. Media planning, job-cost estimation, tax planning, budgeting, etc. are common sorts of work for “office” employees. The people who use these spreadsheets probably could get by without algebra, but anyone who wants to write one is going to be at a big disadvantage without it.
3. It indeed would be a lot easier for people to learn algebra if it were contextualized better by being tied to applied topics in other subjects. But that approach would result in algebra becoming a more important step along the way to passing science, economics, and other courses rather than a less important part. Moreover, some of it requires rote memorization just as does learning the multiplication tables or irregular verbs in a foreign language. It will not always be fun, but some necessary things just aren’t fun.
4. Last I checked, very few jobs require writing or reading Elizabethan English, knowing about Reconstruction, drawing or painting, worrying about environmental issues, knowing the parts of a frog or flower, or understanding why potassium burns when placed in water. I bet I could reduce dropouts and improve test performance by removing those topics from the curriculum and who’d know the difference? Voc-ed uber alles!
5. Hacker’s earlier work questioned the cost/benefit ratio of college. If my hypothesis about the higher education market is correct, then Hacker’s suggestion to stop teaching algebra in high school would fuel the very phenomenon he decries.